June 28, 2009

Some Common Homophones


Mark the following words they are spelled differently and have got different pronunciations or same pronunciation (lie, Lie) but have different meanings.  They seem to be same but in reality we use them in different contexts with different meanings.  I have tried to talk about some common Homographs.  In our daily writings and speaking we always come across many of them.  So here I go.  
·       Accept, Except, Excerpt:
His proposal was accepted by all members present and voting.  (Agreed)
Every one except those absent players was conferred an award for his effort to win the T20 world cup. (Barring, leaving)
This article is based on excerpts from the original War and peace.  (Selected chapters or quotes)
·       Accede, Exceed:
The minister readily acceded to the demand of the people. (Agree)
The budget of our institution exceeds Rs. 100000. 
·       Access, Excess:
He has got a free access to the manager. (Approach)
It was the excess of the police department that Amnesty international raised its voice against.  (Something more than permitted)
·       Adopt, Adapt, Adept:
Please don’t adopt this plan as this involves a heavy expenditure.
They adopted a boy as they were issueless.
The touring Australian Cricket team failed to adapt to the condition of India and failed miserably in their matches.
Ricky Ponting is adept in handling pressure situation and he gets success for his deft handling.
·       Advance, Advances:
They applied for flood advance as their locality had a flood last month. (Monetary grant)
The Pakistan Army made good advances into Indian Territory but finally the attack was repulsed successful by Indian army. (Progress)
·       Advice (N), Advise(V):
Condoleza Rice advised the Administration regarding the Israel crisis and her advices were discussed by other members of the state department.
·       Adverse, Averse:
Those who tackle adverse situations deftly, get success. (Unfavorable)
How can one prosper or get success when one is averse to hard work. (Oppose)
·       Affect, Effect:
The affected people got an ex gratia payment from the government.
They made good progresses to this effect.  This law came into effect from the next month.
·       All together, Altogether:
By working all together (In company, in unison) they were able to achieve the target.
I think this theory regarding the murder is altogether (entirely, completely) fabricated.
·       Allusion, Illusion:
In its report the commission has made an allusion to the highhandedness of a minister. (Reference)
He lives in an illusory situation as all her thoughts are but illusions and not based on facts but fictions. (False beliefs)
·       Already, All Ready:
The letter was already delivered to the party. (By this time)
They are all ready for the expedition. (Entirely)
·       Alter, Altar:
They always alter (make changes) their plans.
He was taken to an altar by the tribal people. (A raised platform for worship)
·       Alternatively, Alternately:
Rahul and Sachin played good looking shots alternately. (By turns)
You have got choices to proceed to New Delhi, you may travel by air or alternatively by train.  
·       Ancient, Old:
He is a student of ancient history. (Of yore, of times long past)
He is an old employee of the department. (Senior)
·       Ascent, Assent:
The ascent to the apex of the mountain is difficult. (The act of going up or climbing up)
The minister gave assent to the proposal and very soon it will come up in the parliament as a bill.
·       Beside, Besides:
The North Block is beside the South block. (Next to, to the side)
Besides giving me financial help, he also helped me in other ways. (In addition to, barring)
·       Childish, Childlike:
These arguments were childish. (Silly, stupid)
His childlike behavior made other his followers. (Like a child)
·       Calendar, Calendar:
Their calendar has gone out of order and he has given his clothes to the laundry man.  (Pressing machine, Cloth Iron)
The republic day in India is a calendar fixed occasion that falls on the January, 26. (Almanac)
·       Compliment, Complement:
Soon after his return he straight away rushed to his manager to compliment him for his success. (Greeting, Regards)
This is a complement to the previous article published in the blog. (That complete or enhances)
·       Continual, Continuous:
Somnath Chatterjee was continually interrupted in his working by the member of opposition in the last Lok Sabha (parliament.)
He has been doing the work continuously for the last 10 years without any promotion.
·       Council, Counsel, Consul:
Hectic preparation was made in the party advisory council before finalizing the names of the candidates.
The members counseled the party high command according to their experience.
The Indian consul in Australia was called by the Australian Prime minister to post him regarding the ongoing attack on Indian students. 
·       Credible, Creditable, Credulous:
No one was swayed by his rhetoric as he was not a credible man. (Believable)
It was certainly a creditable achievement of the group to scale the peak.
Crafty people always take advantage of credulous people. (Who believe anything on face value)
·       Discovery, Invention:
Vasco de Gama discovered sea route to India from Europe. (to search something that existed before)
Radio was the greatest invention of Marconi that is still evolving and helping people communicating faster. (To make something new)
·       Deny, Refuse:
The arraigned person just denied the charges leveled against him. (Say that something is not true)
Narendra Modi was refused permission to enter into the US soil. (To disallow)
·       Device (N), Devise (V):
The thief used a beautiful device to deceive the police. (Plan, scheme, trick)
It is essential to devise an effective scheme to save money as the effect of the depression is seen every where. (Think out, plan)
·       Eligible, Illegible:
In India people who attain 18 years are eligible to vote. (Fit, Suitable)
His handwriting is so illegible.  (That which cannot be read)
·       Eminent, Imminent:
Karenne is an eminent blogger on the theme of ELT.
If things go on in this way in Afghanistan and Pakistan then we must say there is an imminent danger of a war.  (Impending, Likely)
·       Excite, Incite:
Everybody was excited by the news of India’s victory against Australia. (Stir up)
The trade union leaders incited the workers and the result was the closure of the factory. (Arouse, inflame)
·       Famous, Notorious:
Michael Johnson was famous for his singing.  (Widely known for something good)
All the notorious gangsters and bootleggers are the source of funding and law seems to be blind to them. (Famous in a bad sense)
·       Formally, Formerly:
The bill has not yet been formally discussed in the cabinet.  (As a rule)
Dr. Abdul Kalam was a scientist before becoming the president of India.  (Previously)
·       Honorary, Honorable:
He is an honorary secretary of the Indian Chambers of Commerce. (Working or holding office without any remuneration)
He retired from his job rendering honourbale (worthy of respect) service to the nation for 20 years.
·       Human, Humane:
To err is human and to forgive is divine. (Pertaining to human being)
His humane nature is the cause of his eminence. (Kind, benevolent)
·       Imply, Infer:
Silent sometimes implies consent. (Suggest, hint)
He has rightly inferred the secret message written in the letter. (Conclude, deduce)
·       Industrial, Industrious:
Jharsuguda in Orissa is fast coming up as an industrial town. (Related to industry)
It is the industrious nature of the students that determines the success percentage finally. (Laborious)
·       Later, Latter, letter:
I am very busy at present and will call you later. (After some time)
Both Annie and Karenne are my online friends, the former is a Montessori teacher and the latter is an English teacher.  (The second of two)
With the growth of Cell phone and E-mailing letter writing is fast dying out as a medium of communication. 
·       Lie, lay, lain:
You are exhausted, lie down for sometime. (Recline)
He lay on the beach enjoying the serene atmosphere. (Past tense of lie)
He has lain in bed all over the night reading a novel. (Past participle of lie, now rarely used)
·       Lie, Lied:
He has lied the official as he has got a habit to speak lie.  (Do not speak the truth)
·       Loose, Lose:
Don’t let loose your hairs as it retards growth of hairs. (Leave free or untied)
Be alert not to lose the opportunity that knocks your door from time to time.  (Fail to seize)
·       Prosecute, persecute:
After is father’s demise he could not prosecute his study. (Continue)
He was prosecuted for his involvement in a rape case.  (Tried in a legal court)
In a truly democratic country, minority communities are given enough protection from persecution.  (Cruel treatment, punishment)
·       Principle, Principal:
A man of principles is always respected by all. (Good conduct)
The principal food of northern India is wheat. (Main, chief)
He was made the principal of the college for his good track record in teaching.
The principal goes on increasing as time goes by if you put a certain sum in a saving bank account. 
·       Proceed, Precede:
You must proceed with your work for success. (Go on)
The preceding paragraphs have got enough references to the topic.  (That has gone by just now, previous)
·       Spacious, Specious:
This room is spacious enough to accommodate the large number of guests.  (Having ample space)
The arguments of the pleaders were specious and hence they failed to convince the jury. (Seeming right, but not really so)
·       Verbal, Verbose:
He sent me a verbal message about his coming. (Spoken)
A verbose style leads to misunderstanding in communication.  (Using too much words)
·       Stationery, Stationary:
The Office clerks failed to take note of the lack of stationery items. (Articles used in connection with writing)
The sun is a stationary body though it seems movable.  (Fixed)
·       Zealous, Jealous:
For rural development we need a group of zealous workers who can deliver results.  (With full of enthusiasm)
He is jealous of his colleagues marching in the ladder of success.  (Full of envy)
You can also refer to a dictionary for clear pronunciation and meaning along with the uses of the following words. 
Angel Angle Dairy Diary Guard Guide Trail, Trial Breaks Brakes
Minuet, Minute Desert, Dessert Lead, Led Sight, Site Current, Currant
Weather Whether Rest, Wrest Course, coarse Dual, Duel Right, Write, Rite Ring Wring Artist Artiste Artisan Ensure Insure Assure. 
Thank you all. 

June 19, 2009

Wicked Wind


“Annu… wake up…wake up.  It is 6 o’clock, dear.” My eyes saw the day-light following mother’s wake up call.  It was chilling outside and to think of leaving bed was the most unfortunate task for me.  For any delay in leaving bed I would fail my bus as I would be taking time to prepare myself.  When the thought of bus struck my mind, I could not but threw the rug and straight away began preparing myself.  In chilling winter the most unfortunate and hated task happens to be leaving the soft and hot embrace of rug and bed.  My brother and my sister Ginni were sleeping as I was burning in sheer jealousy.  My brother was a sleepoholic and if he had not to attend office at 10 am, he would sleep past noon!
When I was yet to get any employment, I would think, what a memorable day it would be to get a job!  But when I got one, I got a chance to know all those parallel problems running along with a job.  Initially, I would go to the college with uncontrolled enthusiasm.  But now thinking on the job, I would feel thorns pinching my body. 
Anyhow, I finished my breakfast and sped to the bus stop.  The bus was yet to arrive.  There was a big tamarind tree beside the bus stop under which all bus-users and service men performing duty from home would wait for the bus.  But I would feel somewhat awkward standing there.  My time would go in seeing my watch or changing my bag from right to left hand and reverse. 
Hardly did two minutes passed in the meanwhile after my arrival at the bus stop, when a boy riding a bicycle came rushing towards me.  He negotiated close to me and forced me to flinch back a step or two.  Had I not stepped back I thought he would have banged onto me.  Seeing me stepping back some three or four boys standing at a little distance were jeering and laughing.   In anger and helplessness, I could not but kept mum digesting the shamefulness. 
Today, boys have become so immodest and wicked that words fail me to say something about them.  Certainly, I think the wind has become wicked and whomever it touches, it seems a pair of wings comes up to his back. 
Bus came in the meanwhile.  A swarm of bus-users was seen rushing towards the bus.  Somehow I became a part of the rushing crowd.  I boarded the bus anyhow.  Obviously, there were no rooms left as I was boarding midway.  I had to stand on the isle.  An aged gentleman was standing in front of me.  And I thought it suitable to adjust myself there only.  With a sudden jerk the bus started.  The timing of the bus was so suitably arranged that a majority of boys and girls studying in the Science College would catch that bus.  When the driver would apply break to the bus everyone would feel imbalanced.  Boys standing behind would seize the opportunity to balance the unbalancing girls by extending their hands.  And those standing in front would feel fortunate to get the same opportunity as a dole. 
The driver it seemed was bribed to apply such sudden breaks in regular intervals.  I felt a touch of a hand on my hand griping the railing and I saw it was of that aged gentleman standing behind.  He was conversing with another one of his elk standing behind.  I thought his hand movement was spontaneous and involuntary and I adjusted away from his griping hand.  After two minutes, I found my hand feeling similar griping.   Cocking back I found him as usual busy in conversation.  I tried to snatch my hand but now the grip was somewhat tighter.  This time, I was shown a pair of fearful and bulgy eyes.  I snatched my hand despite knowing the fact that I would feel imbalanced doing so.  I didn’t want to be the cynosure of the people on board by starting a brawl with the so called (Un) gentleman.  It is but a tragedy of girls that the male people would tease them and if any girl would protest, she would face such unbearable consequences. 
But I was surprised with the behavior of that so called gentleman.  He must have been around fifty years.  Then I thought I was incorrect initially to pass a judgment on the grown up boys.  Adolescent is such an age that makes one somewhat wicked as new and new age related wings come up.  But I had nothing to tell on this aged fellow who was behaving like an adolescent.  Can they send their growing girls like me alone with this trait of behavior in them? Can they repose faith on person of his age about the safety of their daughters? It is but an irony that there is no dearth of such (un)gentlemen who always strangulate the courage of the girls.  
I was a disciplined lecturer of my college but inside the bus I was like a docile and innocent girl.  This double personality in me would surprise me coming out of the bus.  Perhaps after age I would emancipate myself from this double personality after some more years or experience. 
There was no let up in the wickedness of that old man.  He was continuously rubbing shoulder with that of mine.  On the other hand, my hand was also itching to slap him hard.  The bus was so over-crowded that I was not able to move an inch inside.  To my happiness a lady passenger called me towards her as room was available there.    Thank God, the old man was spared as I was about to imprint my palm on one of his cheeks. 
My stoppage approached near. When the bus stopped, holding my bag I came near the gate.  There was clear imprint of my face in the faces of the boys sitting in front. Stopped to the isle I alighted from the bus. I was feeling relaxed and relieved alighting from the bus.   Just strolling two steps I heard someone singing, “Age seventeen, tresses long and umpteen,” Then it struck my mind that for fear of delay I had left my braid unbridled.  My hand mechanically thought to bridle my braid but then I became a bit rebellious.  Why not, I thought and left it as usual against the wicket wind and declared a war against the wicket wind.   
 
This is a translated short story originally written in Hindi by one of my online friends Vandana Awasthi Dubey who has got multiple blogs  with following Titles:
The original story written and posted in her blog can be found following the link below. http://wwwvandanaadubey.blogspot.com/2009/05/blog-post.html
She is a prolific word artist who weaves beautiful and meaningful wreaths for her admirers to read and enrich. 

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