May 30, 2009

One Word Substitution


One word substitution is very important to write precisely and speak in a single word.  Generally, we speak or write in a garrulous way.  But, it is seen that precise words are always understood easily by all.  At times we become verbose but sometimes the verbosity is not required and we are required to talk or speak precisely. In English language there are a lot of single words for a group of words.  So, speak precisely and avoid the fear of being misunderstood.  Let me quote some one words for a group of words. 
·       Abolish: Do away with wholly.
·       Abolish: Do away with wholly.         
·       Abbreviation: A shortened form of a word or phrase.
·       Accelerate: To increase the speed; to hasten the progress of:
·       Actuary: One who calculates premium:
·       Aggravate: To increase the gravity of an offence or the intensity of a disease:
·       Alienate: To turn friends in enemies.
·       Amateur: One who does something not professionally but for pleasure.
·       Amphibian: a land animal that breeds in water.
·       Aristocracy: people of noble families or the highest social class. Also, government of a country by a small group of people, especially hereditary nobility.
·       Cannibal: somebody who eats human flesh.
·       Diplomat/Envoy:  A diplomatic minister of the higher order sent by a country to another: Ambassador.
·       Ambiguous: Statements open to more than interpretation.
·       Ambivalent: Having opposing feelings.
·       Amnesty: General pardon.
·       Anonymous: A letter, poem etc. whose author is unknown:
·       Anarchy: Absence of government:
·       Answerable:  A person liable to be called to account for his action:
·       Appreciate: To rise in value:
·       Atheist: One who does not believe in the existence of God.
·       Auditor: One who makes an official examination of accounts.
·       Autobiography: The life story of a man written by himself:
·       Biography:  Life story of a man written by other:
·       Bureaucracy: Government by the officials:
·       Biology: The science which treats with life.
·       Bigot:  One who has narrow and prejudiced religious views.
·       Bourgeois: A member of the middle class.
·       Colleagues: People working together in the same office or department.
·       Congenital: Belonging or pertaining to an individual from birth.
·       Contemporary: Men living in the same age:
·       Cosmopolitan: One who can make himself at home in all countries.
·       Credulous: A person who believes easily whatever he is told.
·       Democracy: Government by the people:
·       Depreciate: To go down in value:
·       Disenfranchisement: To take away some one’s right to vote.
·       Delegate:  To give one’s authority to another.
·       Drawn/ Tie: A game or batter in which neither party wins.
·       Edible: A thing that is fit to be eaten.
·       Ecology: Study of environment.
·       Egoist/Egoist: One who thinks only for oneself, a person who is selfish, self absorbed and self centered.
·       Eligible:  One who is qualifies for election.
·       Elucidate: To explain something mysterious or difficult.
·       Emphasize: To lay special stress on.
·       Epitaph: inscription on a tombstone.
·       Equilibrium: A state of perfect balance:
·       Eradicate: To root out an evil, disease:
·       Extempore or Impromptu: A speech delivered without any previous preparation:
·       Embezzlement: Misappropriation of money.
·       Fanatic: A man who has too much enthusiasm for his own religion:
·       Facsimile: An exact copy.
·       Fastidious: One who is not easily pleased.
·       Germicide: A medicine that kills germs.
·       Hung: Assembly or parliament in which no party has got clear majority
·       Honorary:   Work for which no salary is paid:
·       Humanitarian: One who feels sympathetic towards human beings:
·       Illegible: That which cannot be read:
·       Illicit: That is prohibited by law:
·       Illiterate: One who cannot read or write:
·       Inaudible:  A sound that cannot be heard.
·       Incomprehensible: A statement which cannot be understood:
·       Incorrigible: One who cannot be corrected:
·       Inexplicable: That which cannot be explained:
·       Infallible: A remedy which never fails.
·       Impervious: a person who remains unmoved and unaffected by other people's opinions, arguments or suggestions.
·       Illiterate: a person who cannot read or write.
·       Infallible: incapable of making a mistake.
·       Infanticide: the killing of an infant.
·       Inflammable: something that is quickly and easily set on fire and burned.
·       Inimitable: A method that cannot be imitated.
·       Insatiable: That which cannot be satisfied.
·       Insolvent: One who is unable to pay his debts.
·       Invulnerable: That which cannot be hurt.
·       Invulnerable: That which cannot be hurt.
·       Introspection: The action of looking back on past time.
·       Invisible:  A thing that cannot be seen with human eyes.
·       Introspection: Looking into one’s own thoughts.
·       Irrelevant: Remarks which do not ally apply to the subject under discussion.
·       Irreparable: A loss of damage that cannot be compensated.
·       Irrevocable: That cannot be altered or withdrawn.
·       Jurisdiction: The area over which an official has control:
·       Maiden: The first speech made by a person.
·       Misanthropist: Hater of mankind.
·       Mercenary: somebody who works or serves only for personal profit. Also, a professional soldier paid to fight for an army other than that of his or her country.
·       Misogynist: a person who hates women.
·       Misogamist: a person who does not believe in the institution of marriage.
·       Numismatics:  Science of coins or medals.
·       Omniscient: a person who knows everything.
·       Omnivorous: an animal or a human being that eats any kind of food.
·       Omnipotent: a person who has power over all.
·       Philanthropist: Lover of mankind.
·       Panacea: a supposed cure for all diseases or problems.

·       Parasite: a person supported by another and giving him/her nothing in return.
·       Parasite: a person supported by another and giving him/her nothing in return.
·       Potable: Water fit for drinking.
·       Psephology: Systematic study of election trends.
·       Soporific: a drug or other substance that induces sleep.
·       Philistine:  One who does not care for art, literature etc.
·       Sinecure: An office with high salary but no work.
·       Theist: One who believes in God.
·       Vandal: One who damages public property.

This is only a small list as there are so many words that can be practiced by the help of a dictionary or internet. Here is one such link that you can explore. So master those words as much as you can to make your writing or speaking precise and comprehensible to all. 

Thank you.

May 29, 2009

Single L or Double L

·       Dropping the second L in a prefix:

If a prefix ends with a double L is added to another word to form a compound word, the double L becomes a single L.  For Example:

All+most= almost, All+ready=Already, All+right=Already
All+though=Although, All+ways=Always, Full+Fill=Fulfil
Full+some=Fulsome, Skill+full=Skilful, Well+come=Welcome.

·       Full or Ful:

The only word ending full that takes a double L is ‘full itself.’  Otherwise, there is always a single L—or –ful when it is the last syllable of a word of two or more syllables.  For example, there are the following adjectives:

Bashful      fitful           mournful             successful
Beautiful   frightful     painful                 tearful
Careful       fruitful       peaceful               thoughtful
Colourful  grateful      pitiful                  useful
Similarly, ‘till’ with the prefix becomes ‘until’

·       Keeping both is when adding –ly to words ending in L.

There are always two Ls if the suffix –ly is added to a word ending in L.  If an –ly is added to any of these adjectives ending in –ful in order to form adverbs, they take –fully ending, as follows:

 Accident+ly: Accidentally, Actual+ly: Actually,
Cool+ly: Coolly, Cruel+ly: cruelly, Cynical+ly: cynically,
Final+ly: finally, Total+ly: totally, usual+ly: usually. 
 When a word does not end in L then generally we follow the straight forward rule of adding –ly when converting an adjective to an adverb.
Complete+ly: completely, Definite+ly: definitely, Extreme+ly: extremely, Friend+ly: friendly, Interest+ly: interestingly.  
Let’s discuss some exceptions to the general straight forward rule of adding –ly. 

·       When the –ly suffix is added to a word or stem ending Y, this latter Y changes to I.  Thus…

 Busy+ly: Busily, Crazy+ly: Crazily, Fancy+ly: Fancily, Hungry+ly: hungrily, Ready+ly: Readily, Steady+ly: Steadily.  

·       Adding Ly after IC:

A word ending in –Ic adds –ally, instead of plain –ly, to become –ically.
Analytic+ally: Analytically, Atheletic+ally: Athletically. Automatic becomes automatically, fantastically, scientifically, basically, frantically, comically, historically, statistically.  
Public becomes publicly not publically as this is an exception.  

·       -ble becomes –bly, and –ple becomes –ply. 

Adjectives ending in-ble changes the –e to –y to achieve an –ly adverbial ending.  This also rule also applies in case of –ple ending.
Ample- Amply, Capable-capably, durable- durably, favourable- favourably, Humble becomes humbly.  

Exceptions: Truly, Duly, Wholly, Dully, Fully, 

May 23, 2009

Mr. Prime Minister, Good Wishes for the Second Innings

On Friday the 22nd May 2009, again Man Mohan Singh (MMS) was sworn in as Prime Minister of India by the president (No, presidentress is that a term) Mrs. Pratibha Patil.  People wanted continuity of policies and programs and voted the ruling UPA (United Progressive Alliance) to power. To their happiness this time with more power in the form of more vote percentage and more seats as the alliance has got a thumping majority.  This is a clear sign that there was no anti incumbency wave.  The voting also shows that people want stability, stability of administrative machinery and stability of program and policies.  Stability was the sole factor that was eluding India for quite sometime and in recent times Indian inc. has seen many hated jockeying and hectic hobnobbing or compromising the fate of the nation.  Anyway, this time Man Mohan has got clear mandate and is free to initiate more doses of development and reform be it in social, economic or political sector. 

People want obvious infrastructural developments like port, banks, educational sector, health sector, railway and surface communication and power.  It is the responsibility of the government to bestow the benefit of reforms to the common men. This government has got many more challenges to face like taking the development to the mass or grass root level.  Of late, due to liberalization and economic reform India is inching forward to a Capitalist system of government.  As a result of this development a schism has become obvious as the Indian society is being divided in the lines of Haves and Haves nots.  This is not development in clear term.  Government has got a responsibility to help treacle down the benefits of a Capitalist system to the masses. 
Price rise is also a factor that concerns the common men and has been a major factor for worry.  Any round of price rise only happen to be worry of the common men or people living Below Poverty level (BPL).  Industrialists, businessmen, retailers and others only pass any price rise to the customers and in the end they stand to gain at the cost of the end customers.  This tendency of Indian economic system should be checked and adequate checks and balances should be thought and implemented.  Remember, Mr. Prime Minister it is these poor people who have braved the heat wave of April and May and pressed the buttons of the EVMs (Electronic Voting Machine) as people in the urban area who are active in service and business sector seldom stand in the queue of voters to vote. In fact, they have become apathetic to voting as they better know the drama and nonsense stage performances of nonsense politicians. 

Mr. Prime Minister you have the responsibility to ensure equitable development and availability of the fruits of developments to all and sundry.  Be broad and never buckle to the pressure of your short sighted allies (TMC, DMK, NC) as they are there to ensure the development of their respective constituencies and not for national development.  They are there to ensure their re-election and start nurturing their constituencies and constituent, right from the beginning.  So, always check the divisive and narrow politics of this brand of politicians who do not see beyond their constituencies.  But you have proved your mettle time and again right from the beginning and people have voted you, yes you to power.  They don’t know who are the Tom, Dick and Harry who represent them in their constituency.  They know you very well as your face is omnipotent in their thoughts. So it is your responsibility to ensure smiles in their faces, would you?

Mr. Prime Minister the cost of higher education has become so high that it has become a den of only rich.  Mr. Prime minister, subsidize the same so that people in the lower rung can take the benefit of higher education.  Otherwise, I would like to ask a question, “What is the use of such unaffordable educational institutions which is funded by the peoples’ money and run for a chosen few?” Don’t think that SC and ST or OBCs are outrightly poor even after successive rounds of affirmative actions right from the independence.  Otherwise, open the seats of higher education and service sectors to the meritorious, would you?  I don’t think you can as they (Sc, ST, OBC) are your vote bank. Could you please, initiate reforms to end the vote bank politics that has ruined India?  Oh, that’s a tall order and how can you axe your own feet. Lol.

Anyway, we have got so many aspirations and hopes on you and bank on you that you can do the miracle, provided you want to.  Now, it is up to you to show your mettle again.  Indians, wait for another round of India shinning as the Villain of Indian Politics, the Left Parties are out from the Government and the Alliances and have also received severe drubbing in the election.  So, Prime Minister, good wishes to and blessing to you for development of all and sundry. 


May 11, 2009

Mother: Two Sonnets For her

My lovable mother 1

Cried I for the first, got she inexpressible bliss.
My filths became for her, aromatic sandal,
Rheum ran from my nostrils, she happily cleansed,
Massaged and prayed the deity for my brawn.

Babbled she with me, taught to talk and totter.
Beat I her, kissed and hugged me in love,
Felt I ill, became she unnecessarily anxious.
For my coming around, prayed she to the Mother.

Bathed and combed she, added collerium to my eyes.
Gave me food and sent me to school with satchel.
Returned I, shirt in hand, quenched she my thirst.
After sleep, would cover me in her fathomless skirt.

Complained some about me, beat she black and white,
My lovely mother is she; shall I forget till I’ve life?

My Lovable mother-2

Sleep I not and cry, sings she lullaby showing my uncle.
My mischief increases, shows she something to fear,
Feel I hungry and cry, feeds she on her lap,
Let I not cook her, gives she me a doll as pet.

In the scorching sun, force keeps she me inside,
Insist I cocking head, the child thief comes to my sight.
Play I in mud and dance in cloud’s tear,
Beats she in love, to save me getting fever.

Cry I for money to eat ice candy,
Ditheringly pays she, dance I in gaiety.
Always she awakes me in the morn, from lovely sleep,
Forces me to brush, les teeth smell filth.
Desist she from playing in dust,
My lovely mother she is, my godly mother. 

N: B: These two sonnets were written way back in 1997 when I was still an unemployed person living with my mother.  Good wishes to all mothers of the world who helps a child learn everything and see the world in his or her eyes.  Her role in nation building is undeniable and all nations should pay floral tribute to the mothers.  And also do such necessary things so as to all allow them nurture the future of the nation both inside her embryo and on her lap.  Salute to the mothers.  

Thank you.