April 27, 2009

Adding Suffix after Last consonant


Suffix is such an ending that gives a different meaning to the root words to which one add suffixes.  It is added or affixed to the end of a word.  Suffixes are used to make a Noun, Adjective and Adverb.  Different rules are applied while adding a suffix to a word.

Before a Suffix beginning with a Vowel (Single syllable root words):

Double the consonant at the end of a single syllable word when the last Consonant is preceded by a Vowel.  E.g: BaT: Batted, Batter, Batting

Other such words: Bed, Beg, Clap, Clip, Drop, Fat, Fit, Glad, Hit, Hop, Quit, Rub, Run, Sad, Ship, Sip, Sit, Skip, Slap, Slip, Squat, Stop, Tap, Ton, Trap, Trek, Sip.
Exceptions: (Where consonant remains single)

Effects of vowel preceding consonant

Whether the consonant at the end of a root stays single or double often depends on whether a vowel is preceding is pronounced long or short. 

Whether the Consonant is W, X or Y.
If the last consonant happens to W, X or Y and it is preceded by a Vowel, the last consonant remains single despite the rule. 

Some such words: Saw, Stew, Tow, Tax, Vex, Stay, Toy, Try.

Where the Consonant is preceded by Two Vowels:

Here also the consonant remains single though the last consonant is preceded by Vowel.  E.g.:  Beat, beater, beating.

Other such words: Boat, Creep, Droop, Group, Haul, Heap, Heat, Hoot, Leap, Loop. Sail, Seal, Sleep, Soap, Soar, Treat, Trail.  

If a vowel happens to be U with Q beginning the single Vowel rules applies and the last consonant is doubled.  The U after Q is not counted as a vowel (A part of a Digraph) as it only adds to the Q sound.   E.g. Quit: Quitting. Quiz: Quizzed, Quizzing.

Where there two Consonant at the end of a Root word:

The last consonant does not double.  For example: Fast, Halt, Turn.
This is about Mono syllable words.  The next post will on Multi-syllable words.  Till the next post, smile and wait.  Lol.  Follow my blog in Google Friend Connect so that you will remain posted about any updates.  Thanks

April 20, 2009

Some Essential Spelling Rules


Diphthong: Where two adjacent vowels are pronounced together in a single sound.  For example EA in ‘peach’ or EI in ‘receipt’ EE in ‘seek’ or IE in ‘Field’ or OO in ‘Cook’ 

Digraph: Two adjacent vowels making a single sound as you know is a Diphthong as stated above but Digraph has a wider meaning.  Any two letter be it two consonant or one consonant and a vowel pronounced unitedly to produce a single sound is known as Digraph.  So all Diphthongs are Digraphs but not vice versa.

Let’s know about some well known Diphthong and Digraph.
IE or EI: There are seven different sounds or this combination.
·        The (ee) sound as in Greek.
·        (Ay) sound as in Bay.
·        (Eye) sound as in Ice.
·        ( I ) As in Fit.
·        (Eh) sound as in Best.
·        (Uh) sound in Hunt.
·        (Oo) sound in Shoe.


(I)               EE sound:

The famous “I” before “E” except after “C” rule applies particularly to this “EE” sound as in Creek or Beak.

Achieve, Diesel, Hygiene, Reprieve, Chief, Belief, Field, Niece, Shriek


The C  rule.

Ceiling, Conceive, Deceive, Receive, Conceit, Deceit, Perceive, Receipt.
Mark here it is not “IE” rather “Ei” as There is the letter C before the sound.

Exception despite the absence of C.

Either, Protein, Sheik, Weird, Neither, Seize, Sheila, Plebeian, Seizure, Weir,
(II)           AY sound:

For this sound, the same as the (ay) in Hay or Way, the spelling invariably Ei, not Ie.
Beige, Feint, Neighbor (Us), Veil, Deign, Freight, Heir, Rain, Weigh, Feign, Inveigh, Weight

(III)        I sound:

For this short I sound as in hit, fit or bit, the spelling is usually Ei rather than IE.
Counterfeit, Forfeit, Sovereign, Surfeit, Foreign, Forfeiture.

Exception: Handkerchief, Series, Sieve, Mischief

(IV)        EYE sound:

This is nothing but Long I sound as in Nice, Vice or Kite. The more common spelling is Ei.

Eiderdown, Either, Height, Sleight, Fahrenheit, Neither,

Exception: Died, Hierarchy, Lied, Tied.
(V)           EH sound:

For this sound as in Rest or Best or Left the usual rule is Ie. But Ei is also possible as in Leisure,

(VI)        UH sound:

For this sound as in Hunt or Shunt the spelling rule is IE.
Ancient, Conscience, Patience, Patient, Proficient.

(VII)    OO or YEW sound:
For this sound Ie rule is followed.
Lieu, Lieutenant, Review, View, Skew.
Friends and followers this much for today. Next time I will be discussing more such rules about spelling.  Wait for the next lesson. Till then bye.  
Thanks
 

April 17, 2009

Evolving English language

‘If winter comes can summer be far behind’ goes the saying.  Today every branch has its own terms developed over the ages.  People using Blackberry devices would talk on Blackberry terms and similarly people in railway would like to talk in their own terms. This jargon language of each and every field of life has of late entered the English dictionary.  Email has its own language, so has the Chatting over the internet.  All such languages, either blend terms or portmanteaus are examples of compact beauty.  By and by internet is making inroad into houses.  Slowly but steadily Internet is fast becoming one of the favorite destinations of researchers, students for purpose of knowledge, fun, friendship, chatting, emailing, file sharing, photo uploading and many other things.  Social Networks have attracted a majority of internet users and providing such interesting services like Forum or Discussion Board for sharing views and uniting all like minded people in a single community.  It has become so successful, today it is very easy to find glitterati or film stars or politicians in such social networking sites. Did you know, American President Barrack Obama is an internet user? He can be found in network like Twitter.  In fact, he had used the power of the internet to raise huge sum of money to fund his electoral campaign.  In India film stars like Amir Khan Shahrukh Khan and Amitabh Bachhan are notable twitter users. 
Social networks like Facebook, Myspace, Orkut, Twitter, Hi5, Ibibo, Friendster are highly preferable sites of young people. And a notable feature of all these sites is that they have contributed a lot to the development of the English language in blending innumerable terms.  As many people are using such networks it is but obvious the vocabulary terms have entered into day to day writing and speaking.  In this way gradually, such vocabulary terms have made inroad into the mainstream language.  English is assimilative, it adapts and adopts faster as compared to other languages.  Further, the development is also confined to the English language as English has been the preferable language of the internet users.  The development in other languages of the world may be said negligible.
Let’s analyze some new vocabulary terms being used by users of Twitter users.
The language that has evolved over the time is nothing but the use of prefix Twit… to an existing word and blending that for better pronunciation.  And the plethora of vocabularies that has evolved can be compiled a twittonary.  Yea, you are right that is nothing but a twitter specific dictionary.  So here I am with a list of terms used by twitter users. 
Auto-nudge: This is a setting that sends automatic nudges as per schedule set.
Dweet: Tweets sent in inebriated condition.
Mistweet: A tweet one later repents.
Nudge: a friendly note sent to a dormant user to be active or update.
Sweeple: Sweet twitters people.
Twitterspeak: The language of the twitter users.
Tweeter/Twitterer: The twitter user.
Tweets: Short messages. (140 characters maximum)
Tweeting: Posting the short messages.
Twadd: To add a tweeter user.
Twaffic: Twitter traffic.
Tweetheart: That flutters the heart of a user.
Tweepish: Feeling sheepish or rueful about a tweet.
Twexting: Who likes to send only text messaging.
Twebay: To sell something on twitter as in E-bay.
Twitterati: that is glitterati of twitter. To whom everyone follows.
Twitterlooing: Twittering from bathroom.
@username: (@sudampanigrahi my user name) By this way a direct message is posted to a user. Facebook
In Orkut a message is known as Scrap. Now scrap is not that, one usually knows as garbage.  It is a short message, used both as Noun and Verb. 
In Facebook similarly it is known as wall.  It is also used as Noun and Verb.  Like, he walled me, written something on the wall a virtual first page of a profile.
Poke: That is called Nudge in twitter.  Ah, there is a Super-Poke also that is nothing but the next level of poking if someone relentlessly ignores Pokes.
The list is endless and the research is on by network users.  Next time I will bring another collection of vocabularies from those sites.  Till then it is bye for now.  Thank you.

April 09, 2009

Google Webmaster: Guide for Bloggers



Google is no doubt the choiceable search engine of the internet surfers.  In the last eleven months or so of blogging this blogger has found this fact while tracking visitors to his blog.  He has found that a majority of his visitors come from the Google search engine.  And all others search engines just come way behind.   This is for this reason all bloggers submit their blogs to Google first and then submit to other search engines.  Googlebot no doubt searches and indexes everything under the sun but submitting is the preferable mode of first seeing one’s blog in the search engine.  http://google.com/addurl
 
But here this blogger would like to discuss about the Webmaster of service of Google.  Interestingly, many newbie bloggers do not know about the Webmaster service.  Remember apart from Google Adword all other services like Adsense, Analytics, Blogger, Feedburner, Knol, Friendsconnect, iGoggle, Youtube etc. are free to use.  

Many also think that when they have submitted their blogs to the Google search engine proper then there is no use of submitting blogs to the Webmaster.  But a professional internet services provider like Google has not gone mad to provide two similar services. What do you think? In reality both are different things. Remember to submit one’s blog to Google Webmaster and to the search engine are two different things. Apart from submitting your blogs to Google, those should also be submitted to the Google Webmaster as both are different services.  Let me confine to Webmaster. 

You have a Google account like others, okay? Then sign in to your account and click Google webmaster.  You will be taken to webmaster Dashboard.


 Look in the dashboard there is a Text box with a Button written Add Site.  Enter your blog’s URL and hit the Tab.  It will take you to a page and ask you to verify your site.  Now be there. There are two methods to verify your sites: one is uploading an HTML file and the other is pasting a Verification Code to your template.  Now Copy the code provided, done?  Now, paste the same code snippet just below the beginning head of the template. Now see the verify button.  You have pasted the code, okay? Then hit the verify button.  If you have pasted the code in right way and at the right location, straight way you will be given the confirmation message that your site is verified.  If you get similar message then you have done the first step.  If you choose to by pass this or want to do that at your leisure then don’t worry.  You can go through the verification process once again.  Or you can later come to the Tools tab and get the code once again to paste inside your template.  My advice for you is that you should copy this code and save in a .txt file named GWM verification code. This will save you from unnecessary hassles when you choose to change your template at some point of time.  

Webmaster provides different services like:
·       Diagnostics
·       settings
·       Statistics
·       Links
·       Sitemaps
·       Tools
In diagnostics, one gets a clear cut diagnosis of one’s blog’s contents.  Duplicate contents are singled out for the blogger’s perusal and action. Contents with unfriendly urls or having rich Medias are also figured out for rectification.  

In Settings Tab you can choose the geographically targeted country to help the site to index information about your blog accordingly.  Remember as far as keywords are concerned in one country if your keyword happens to at No 10 in other country the same can be at No 1.  Hence, it is for you to choose information from which country you want to be shown in your page.  You can also specify if http://yoursite or www.yoursite can be your preferred domain as results of both addresses happen to be different.  You can also change the crawl rate here but please refer to my caution stated in paragraph below.  You can also specify if blogs can be indexed for image search as bloggers always happen to insert images to enhance their posts readability and addition of value or beautifying them with relevant images.  

In statistics one gets the Crawl rate, page ranks, keywords analysis, Missing Urls, Keywords not indexed in search engines.  In the beginning the crawl rate happens to be flexible and the rate can be changed by bloggers or site owners.  But when a blog or site is matured, the crawl rate is fixed by Google and the googlebot crawls the site or blog on its own as per the fixed crawling rate.  Remember in the beginning don’t try to tamper with the default crawling rate as that may cause crash or blackout of datas.
An important aspect of Keywords analysis is that which Keyword comes in which page and what number in Google searches.  Further, what percentages of the searched Keywords happen to be in an individual post is shown in a tabulate form.  This is very important for content writing and rectifying individual posts.  By correction one can change the percentage of a keyword to receive search engine hits and compete against other similar urls. 
In links one can check the Candidate Link, External and Internal link. 
The Site operator will show how many of urls are indexed in the search engine.  Very often it happens that duplicate urls are shown by Google. To know exactly how many urls are indexed sitemap summary is the best way.  But in site link one will get the urls with their headings.  In other words, one will get the links to one’s posts directly.

In the Link operator one will get the back links that means how many links are linked to the home page of a blog or site.  This always happens to be less than the external links as external links shows the links to individual posts and the homepage.  

The Cache link shows the stored snapshot of one’s blog or site.  The Info operator shows a short Bio that one chooses to share with others in Google account.  Related operator will show links similar to one’s blog.  This is automatically generated by the search engine. 
Sitemap shows how many of urls are indexed in the search engine.  As far as Sitemap is concerned many newbie bloggers find themselves in a conundrum regarding the process of uploading the sitemap.  This is too easy as nothing is required to be uploaded as only a feed address happens to be necessary.  For example my sitemap url is http://thatlovedflower.blogspot.com/atom.xml Sitemap helps the search engine in indexing urls of a particular blog and if the googlebot fails to index any urls, the sitemap helps in indexing all available urls for search engine.  

Under the head Tool one can find the following links, Analyze robot text, Generate robottext, Enhance 404 page, Manage Site Verification, Remove Indexed Url, Useful Google Gadgets, The first two about robottext are advanced type and don’t try to do it unless you know more about them.  Many don’t maintain the 404 page and whenever a link is not found due to deletion the same default ‘Not Found’ text greets. If you don’t happen to verify your site then the code can be found in the Manage Site Verification link. In the Gadget section one can find a lot of useful Google friendly gadgets developed by third parties or Google engineers.  Third party gadgets are ensured Google friendliness and guidelines.  Hence they can be used freely by a site owner or blog owner. 


The webmaster is very useful and free Google service that not only guides but also shows way to bloggers to steer their blogs in right direction.  So, what do you think? Submit your blog to Google webmaster and enjoy targeted and guided blogging.  Remember all available data can be exported to your desktop in forms of .xls file for your later perusal and next course of action or for your future reference. 
It is very difficult to find blogging help for newbie bloggers and this blogger has only tried to present his available knowledge on Google Webmaster.  This blogger has also done a guest posting on Visitors Tracking for the help of newbie blogger.  Here is the link if you want to read that article or save the same for future use.  http://bloggingwithsuccess.net/keeping-track-blog-visitors
Thank you.

April 08, 2009

Portmanteau or Blending in English language

Portmanteau is a blend of two words that makes a new word combining elements of both words.  In the internet, media and literary creations like Novels this has become a trend and many such words have gained wide expectance solely for their easy usability.  Now twitter is one of the highly used website and as twitter message happens to be as small as 140 characters, blending or shortening has become the norms.  As all the messages are available in the public time line those blended words by and by have become accepted terms.  Twiout, twiton, twitsend, have entered into the vocabularies of twitter users (twitterians.) Blending not only beautifies but also takes less space in other words takes less of characters and speaks the things effectively.  Portmanteau word was first used by Lewis Caroll in ‘Alice through the looking Glass’ in 1872.
By and by those words have made inroad into popular dictionaries and have blended in such a way that some go pass as original words.  Let’s look some of those terms.
Advertainment: Advertisement and Entertainment.
Aerocade: Aero plane and motorcade.
Ampicillin: Amino and Penicillin.
Bash: Bang and smash.
Because: by and cause.
Bit: binary and digit.
Bleep: blackout and beep.
Blotch: blot, botch.
Blurt: blow, spurt
Breathalyzer: breath plus analyzer.
Brunch: breakfast and lunch.
Bumble: bungle and stumble.
Camcorder: camera and recorder.
Chortle: chuckle, snort.
Chump: chunk+ lump.
Cineplex: cinema, complex.
Clash: clap+ crash.
Ditsy: dizzy and dotty.
Docusoap: documentary and soap opera.
Doddle: dodder and toddle.
Drice: dry and ice.
Dumbfound: dumb and confound.
Email: electronic mail.
Emoticon: emotion and icon.
Faction: fact and fiction.
Fantabulous: fantastic and fabulous.
Flare: flame and glare.
Flop: flap and drop.
Flurry: flutter and hurry.
Fortnight: fourteen + nights.
Freeware: free and software.
Genome: gene and chromosome.
Ginormous: Gigantic and enormous.
Glaze: glare and gaze.
Glimmer: gleam and shimmer.
Glitz: glamour+ ritz.
Goodbye: God be with ye.
Goon: gorilla and baboon.
Guesstimate: guess and estimate.
Hi-tech: high technology.
Humongous: huge and monstrous.
Infomercial: information and commercial.
Insinuendo: insinuation and innuendo.
Intercom: internal and communication.
Jamboree: jam+ soiree.
Malware: malicious +software.
Medicare: medical plus care.
Modem: modulator and demodulator.
Moped:  motor and pedal.
Motel: motor and hotel.
Motorcade: motor and cavalcade.
Multiplex: multiple and complex.
O’clock: of the clock.
Oxbridge: Oxford and Cambridge.
Pang: Pain and sting.
Pixel: picture and element.
Podcast: Ipod casting.
Pulsar: pulsating and star.
Sitcom: situational comedy.
Slang: slovenly language.
Smash: smack and mash.
Smog: smoke and fog.
Stagflation: stagnation and inflation.
Swipe: wipe and sweep.
Transistor: transfer and resistor.
Travelogue: travel and monologue.
Tween: teen between.
Twiddle: twist fiddle.
Waddle: wade and toddle.
Wi-Fi: wireless and fidelity.
Workaholic: work plus alcoholic.
Electoronic is a word that has led to many terms beginning with E like E-paper, E-tender, E-government, E-transfer and many others.
Similarly, we have got words like chatothon or anything ending with thon. (thon taken from marathon) That is long, huge can be described as that thing with -thon suffix.  Holic is also such a suffix taken from Alcoholic.  Too much obsessed are usually described by the –holic suffix, like workaholic, chocoholic etc. 
Interestingly, many of the above given words are not being underlined by Microsoft Word that show their acceptance.  Words like smog, because, goodbye, o’clock has got such wide acceptance that we cannot know about their blending.  This is the living nature of English language. 
Next time we will analyze the shortening or abbreviating trend of English language users.  Remember, the shortening has also contributed to the English vocabulary.  In blending it take two words but shortening takes single word to cause a new term. 
Thank you.
 

April 07, 2009

Words that go in pairs

In English languages there are a lot of words which go in pair.  In most cases both syllables rhyme with each other.  In fact these kinds of pair words are present in every language.  In Hindi, Oriya that I know there are a lot of similar vocabulary terms.  They not only express a correct meaning beautifully but deliciously too.  Let’s examine some pairs though in this blog post it is not possible to give a long list of similar words. 

·        Airy-fairy: foolishly idealistic and vague.
·        Dilly-dally: Dawdle or vacillate.  
·        Fuddy-duddy: A person who is very old-fashioned and pompous.
·        Harum-scarum: reckless, impetuous.
·        Helter-skelter: in disorderly haste or confusion.
·        Hocus-pocus: meaningless talk used to deceive.
·        Hodge-podge, hotchpotch: a confused mixture.
·        Hoity-toity: haughty.
·        Hunky-dory: excellent.
·        Hurly-burly: boisterous activity.
·        Itsy-bitsy, itty-bitty: very small.
·        Jiggery-pokery: deceitful or dishonest behavior.
·        Knick-knack: a small object in an ornament with little value.
·        Mish-mash: A confused mixture.
·        Namby-pamby: lacking courage or vigor.
·        Pell-mell: in a confused, rushed or disorderly way.
·        Pitter-patter: a sound as of quick light steps.
·        Riff-raff: disrespectful or undesirable people.
·        Roly-poly: round and plump.
·        Silly-bily: a silly person.
·        Teeny-weeny, teensy-weensy: very small.
·        Tell-tale: revealing or betraying something.
·        Tip-top: of very best, excellent.
·        Willy-nilly: whether one likes it or not, haphazardly.
·        Wishy-washy: (of drink and soup) weak or thin, feeble or insipid.
·        Chit-Chat: Small talks or some informal discussion, gossip.

Thank you for going through this post.