July 27, 2008

With THE and Without THE

Let’s analyze different situations when we use the article ‘The.’ It is used before countable Names (Nouns).

Union: The Soviet Union, The Union of South Africa.
Kingdom: The United Kingdom (The UK)
States: The United States of America. (The USA)
The United Arab Emirates, the Netherlands,
Republics: The German Democratic Republic (GDR)
The republic of Ireland.
Sea: The Red sea, the Black Sea, The North Sea,
The Arabian Sea.
Ocean: The Indian ocean, The Pacific Ocean, The Atlantic
Canal: The Suez Canal, The Panama Canal.
Channel: The English Channel.
River: The Nile, The Ganges, The Damodar,
Mountain: The Himalayas, The Rockies, The ARavalies,
Range: The Pir Panjal Range, The Rockies.
Desert: The Kalahari, The Gobi, The Sahara.
Islands/ Isles: The British Isles, The Andamans, The Nicobars.

The names of the individual mountain s and islands and the names of lakes are used without the article “The.”

Kanchnjungha (Name of a Peak)
Mount Everest.
Mount Deomali.
Lake Chilika, (Name of a Lake)
Lake Superior.
Lake Ontario.

‘The’ is used with the names of Newspaper and Religious Books.

The New York Time, the times of India, the Guardian
(Names of News paper)
The Gita, the Koran, the Bible, the Upanishads, the Gurugranth Sahib. (Names of Religious books)

‘The’ is used with the Nationality adjectives to mean the peoples of a particular country.

The British (People of Britain)
The Irish, The Dutch, The Swiss, The Indians
The Japanese, The Chinese, The Arabs, The Turks.

‘The’ is used before the names of Musical instruments.

The Harmonium is one of my favorite instruments.
The flute, the saxophone, the tabla etc.

Names of meals go without the article ‘the’

It is high time for dinner.
Lunch is important for all office goers.

Rest on some other day, follow me!!

July 19, 2008

ARTICLES: A, AN and THE

In English grammar Articles are but three small words that do significant and important jobs as their use and non use make the differences in meanings of sentences as they either determine the number of nouns or work as back referencer (like pronoun in case of Noun) or make a group (the rich). Though articles are small words still their role in a sentence is big.

There are three articles which are categorized into two groups such as Definite Article and Indefinite Article. ‘The’ is the definite article and both ‘A’ and ‘An’ are known as Indefinite article. Sometimes nouns require no article and that condition is known as ‘Zero article’ (Books are known as best chum for all).

A and An are used two make plural nouns as singular. When a noun begins with a vowel sound (A, E, I, O and U) takes ‘An’ and those nouns which begin with any one of the other 21 consonant letter takes ‘A’ while making singular expression. Not only do letters but vowel sounds also necessitate the use of ‘An’ though the initial letter happens to be consonant.

Cow is a domestic animal. A cow has two fore legs.

He has an umbrella which is red in color.

The above two sentences make the rule clear. Let’s analyze the sound or pronunciation part.

We call an MLA or an MP. A US spokesperson.

(The pronunciation of ‘M’ begins with ‘A’)

An heir, An hour, An honest man.

But

A university, An European.

(Here the choice of article is determined by the sound of the noun. Generally, vowels have two sounds and sometimes more than one vowel unite to complete the required sound. One sound is known ‘Soft Sound’ that ends abruptly and the ‘Hard Sound’ that lingers on and ends up producing a consonant sound like the U in University. It is not only the initial vowel but also vowel sounds of nouns that determine the use of article ‘A’ and ‘An.’

Let’s discuss about the pronunciation pattern of ‘The.’

When there happens to be an initial vowel letter or initial vowel sound ‘The’ is pronounced /di/ and in the rest of cases it is pronounced as /da/.

The /da/ books of our time were very bulky and informative.

The /di/ ancestors of Ram were great men of caliber.

N: B: Want to know more about articles? Please do visit the blog regularly as all the following installments of your choice or your inclination regarding articles and other grammatical entities will be covered by and by. So follow me to catch more and more

July 11, 2008

Verbs We Use

Let’s read the following sentences:

a) Sam is a writer and he writes stories.

b) He has written many stories.

c) He will definitely write a story on the present cultural conditions.

The words write, written are called verbs. These words indicate some sorts of activities. And these kinds of words that talks of some action or activities or moment of the Subject or the doer we call them as VERBS. No doubt there are verbs in the above sentences like Is, Has and Will that do not talk of any action or activities. Still they are verbs as they work for the Main Verbs. They establish a link rather bridge the link between the Subject and the Main verb.

Verbs like is, are, were, was, has, had, do, did, done, be, am, will, shall are called Auxiliary Verbs or Helping Verbs or Anomalous Finite. They don’t have any dictionary meaning as the main verbs. These verbs have single form. They are not used independently and always support a main verb. They are used to show Moods, Tense, Voice etc. of the main verbs. And for this they are also known as Structural Words. On the other hand, main verbs have three different forms Present, past, past participle. These verbs can be used independently and they always have some dictionary meaning. There are some auxiliary verbs like do, have which is used as Full verbs.

I have an umbrella.

Full verbs or main verbs as well as helping verbs can be categorized as Finite or Infinite.

1) I write. 2) I shall write. 3) Will you go there?

Observe the three sentences. In the first sentences there is no auxiliary verb and write is used independently. In this case it is a Finite Verb. In the second sentence there is an auxiliary verb and here write can be called an Infinite verb. In the second sentence Will is in the beginning of a sentence and hence it is a
Finite Verb.

All full verbs have three forms such as Present, Past and Past Participle. Of course there is the ~Ing form that is called Present Participle. One will have to learn various forms of verbs to frame good and meaningful sentences. After a lot of reading and practice all these things are mastered by a user. In English a word changes its form in its different form in different tenses.

Let’s examine some Rules or Conventions.

Generally ~Ed is used to change the forms of a verb in the Present to Past and Past Participle. But there are a lot of verbs that have different forms in different.

Irregular verbs: There so many verbs in English language which have different forms in different tenses. There is no change in forming the Present Participle like ~ing. Irregular verbs have different forms in different tenses and don’t take ~ED to form Past and Past Participle forms.

There are some Irregular Verbs that have all the forms as identical like:

Present

Past

Past participle

Cut

Cut

Cut

Let

Let

Let

Hit

Hit

Hit

There is another group that has two parts identical and one Part happens to be different:

Present

Past

Past participle

Spend

Spent

Spent

Come

Came

Come

Bring

Brought

Brought

Go

Went

Gone

Yet another group that has all the parts or forms as different:

Present

Past

Past participle

Blow

Blew

Blown

Speak

Spoke

Spoken

Throw

Threw

Thrown

Group 1

Present

Past

Past participle

Bet

Bet, Betted

Bet, Betted

Bid

Bid, Bade

Bid, Bidden

Broadcast

Broadcast

Broadcast

Burst

Burst

Burst

Bust

bust, busted

Bust, Busted

Cast

cast

cast

Cost

cost, (costed)

cost, (costed)

Cut

cut

cut

Fit

fit (us) fitted

fit, fitted

Forecast

forecast

forecast

Hit

hit

hit

Hurt

hurt

hurt

Input

input (inputted)

input (inputted)

Knit

knit, knitted

knit, knitted

Let

let

let

Miscast

miscast

miscast

Offset

offset

offset

Outbid

outbid

outbid

Put

put

put

Quit

quit, quitted

quit, quitted

Recast

recast

recast

Reset

reset

reset

Rid

rid, ridded

rid, ridded

Set

set

set

Shed

shed

shed

Shut

shut

shut

Slit

slit

slit

Split

split

split

Spread

spread

spread

Sweat

sweat, sweated

sweat, sweated

Thrust

thrust

thrust

Typeset

typeset

typeset

Upset

upset

upset

Wed

wed, wedded

wed, wedded

Wet

wet, wetted

wet, wetted

Group2

Present

Past

Past participle

Burn

burned, burnt

burned, burnt

Dwell

dwelled, dwelt

dwelled, dwelt

Learn

learnt, learned

learnt, learned

Misspell

misspelled, misspelt

missspelt, misspelled

Smell

smelled, smelt

smelled, smelt

Spell

spelled, spelt

spelled, spelt

Spill

spilled, spilt

spilled, spilt

Spoil

spoilt, spoiled

spoilt, spoiled

Group 3

Present

Past

Past participle

Bend

Bent

Bent

Build

Built

Built

Lend

Lent

Lent

Rebuild

Rebuilt

Rebuilt

Rend

Rent

Rent

Send

Sent

Sent

Spend

Spent

Spent

Unbend

Unbent

Unbent

Group 4

Present

Past

Past participle

Behold

beheld

beheld

Bleed

bled

bled

Breed

bred

bred

Feed

fed

fed

Flee

fled

fled

Hold

Held

held

Lead (pro: lid)

led

led

Mislead

held

misled

Overfeed

overfed

overfed

Read (Pro: rid)

read (pro: red)

read

Reread

-

-

Speed

sped, speeded

sped, speeded

Uphold

upheld

upheld

Withhold

withheld

withheld

Group 5

Present

Past

Past participle

Creep

Crept

Crept

Deal (Pro: Dil)

Dealt (Pro: De..)

Dealt

Dream

Dreamt/ed

Dreamt/ed

Feel

Felt

Felt

Keep

Kept

Kept

Kneel

Knelt/ed

Knelt/ed

Lean

Leant/ed

Leant/ed

Leap

Leapt/ed

Leapt/ed

Leave

Left

Left

Mean

Meant

Meant

Meet

Met

Met

Oversleep

Overslept

Overslept

Sleep

Slept

Slept

Sweep

Swept

Swept

Weep

Wept

Wept

N: B: Wait for the Verb: Part 2 for the list of rest of general verbs.

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